Adderall, Stimulants & Modafinil for ADHD: Short- & Long-Term Effects


Huberman Lab

In this episode, I explain how medications such as Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse and other stimulants work to increase focus and treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I explain the brain circuits involved in focus and the key roles dopamine and norepinephrine play in their regulation. Then I explain how stimulants such as Adderall and Vyvanse can increase focus and reduce hyperactivity in kids or adults with ADHD, and how and why Ritalin and other medications (e.g., Modafinil, Guanfacine) may work better for some. I explain the long-term effects of ADHD medications on height, cardiovascular health, hormones, predisposition to addiction and psychosis, and whether these treatments can be used and then stopped. I also discuss the immense individual variation in dosage sensitivity for these medications and the negative side-effects that occur from recreational use. This episode ought to benefit anyone with ADHD, their parents, those on ADHD medications or anyone curious about how these medications work.

For the full show notes, visit

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(00:00:00) Stimulants & Attention-Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

(00:03:38) Sponsors: LMNT & Waking Up

(00:06:35) The Brain-Body Contract

(00:07:22) Attention, Prefrontal Cortex & ADHD

(00:16:27) Stimulants “Sympathomimetics”

(00:21:29) Adderall, Dopamine & Norepinephrine

(00:25:58) Sympathomimetics, Dopamine & Norepinephrine

(00:27:21) Sponsor: AG1

(00:32:20) Vyvanse is Timed-Release D-Amp

(00:36:36) Ritalin, Concerta

(00:40:10) Dopamine & “Noise Reduction”; Norepinephrine & “Signal Amplification”

(00:45:28) ADHD: Focus, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity; Drug Selection & Dose

(00:50:57) How do Stimulants ‘Calm’ ADHD?

(00:54:480 Neuroplasticity & Neuromodulators

(00:58:06) Kids, ADHD Diagnosis & Treatment; Predispose Addiction?

(01:05:12) ADHD Medications: Individuality, Doses, Tapering & Long-Term Use

(01:13:28) Medication & Long-Term Effects: Height, Cardiovascular Risk, Alcohol

(01:19:32) Cortisol & Hormones

(01:27:45) Psychosis & Addiction; Methamphetamine

(01:38:20) Recreational Use, Addiction & Psychosis; Habituation

(01:42:30) Drug Holidays; Ritalin & Long-Term Effects

(01:45:35) Modafinil, Armodafinil; Side-Effects

(01:53:03) Guanfacine, Alcohol

(01:58:03) ADHD Medications

(02:00:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter

Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac


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